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Mecca or Makkah

This city is the holiest place for the 1.3 billion Muslims worldwide and it is required of them to at least once in their lifetime undertake a pilgrimage to this site. Located in the valley of Abraham, and also the capital of the Makkah province in Saudi Arabia, Mecca is 73 kilometers inland from Jeddah a coastal town, 277 meters above sea level and approximately 80 kilometers from the Red Sea. (

The coordinates are 21°25′N 39°49′E (

Figure 3.1: Aerial view of the Arabian Peninsula and North East Africa.

Figure 3.2: The capital of the Islamic world, Mecca.

Figure 3.3: The Holy city of Mecca

Figure 3.4: A side view of Mecca in the Arabian Desert