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Founded approximately 3100 years before Christ by Menes of Tanis, Ineb Hedj or Memphis as we know it now was the capital of Ancient Egypt. The ruins of this ancient city lie near Mit-Rahineh which is approximately 12 km south of Cairo, on the west bank of the Nile. Some scholars also hypothesize that Memphis in its peak days (2250 BC) with a large centre of the cult of Ptah, were the largest city in that time with 30 000 inhabitants (


Figure 6.1: Northern Africa with Memphis and Cairo highlighted.

Figure 6.2: Memphis, on the west bank of the Nile.

Figure 6.3: The Ancient and the modern cities, Memphis and a part of Cairo

Figure 6.4: Represents the ruins of Memphis